Two Views of the Day of Atonement
This article is based on a message given on the Day of Atonement, 2004. Because of a lack of time to research and present a message, I brought in material from two authors who have written on the subject and compiled quotations from their writings into the message delivered on the holy day.
Part 1. The Messianic viewpoint of Atonement
The first section of this article presents excerpts from Eddie Chumney’s book, The Seven Festivals of the Messiah. Chapter 8 is about Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, and its Messianic implications, so I’ll quote out of this chapter and give some additional comments.
I’ll begin quoting where Chumney is discussing the two goats.
Leviticus 16:5-10 (NIV):
5 From the Israelite community he [Aaron, or the high priest] is to take two male goats for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering.
6 "Aaron is to offer the bull for his own sin offering to make atonement for himself and his household.
7 Then he is to take the two goats and present them before the LORD at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting.
8 He is to cast lots for the two goats – one lot for the LORD and the other for the scapegoat [Heb. azazel, the goat of removing].
9 Aaron shall bring the goat whose lot falls to the LORD and sacrifice it for a sin offering.
10 But the goat chosen by lot as the scapegoat [azazel] shall be presented alive before the LORD to be used for making atonement by sending it into the desert as a scapegoat.
Yeshua during His first coming was a type of the goat marked La Adonai. Yeshua was a sin offering to us as G-d laid upon Him the sins of the whole world (Isaiah [Yeshayahu] 53:1-6; 1 Corinthians 15:3; Galatians 1:3-4; Hebrews 2:17; 1 John [Yochanan] 2:2; 4:10).
In the ceremony of the two goats, the two goats were considered as one offering. A crimson sash [a red ribbon] was tied around the horns of the goat marked azazel. At the appropriate time, the goat was led to a steep cliff in the wilderness and shoved off the cliff.
The crimson sash and shoving the goat off a cliff are probably traditional understandings, or ceremonial additions from some time after Moses. They aren’t in the scriptural instructions.
20 "When Aaron has finished making atonement for the Most Holy Place, the Tent of Meeting and the altar, he shall bring forward the live goat.
21 He is to lay both hands on the head of the live goat and confess over it all the wickedness and rebellion of the Israelites – all their sins – and put them on the goat's head. He shall send the goat away into the desert in the care of a man appointed for the task.
22 The goat will carry on itself all their sins to a solitary place; and the man shall release it in the desert.
Continuing with Chumney’s book:
In connection with this ceremony, an interesting tradition arose that is mentioned in the Mishnah. A portion of the crimson sash was attached to the door of the temple (Beit HaMikdash) before the goat was sent into the wilderness. The sash would turn from red to white as the goat met its end, signaling to the people that G-d had accepted their sacrifices and their sins were forgiven. This was based upon Isaiah (Yeshayahu) 1:18.
Isaiah 1:18: “’Come now, let us reason together,’ says the LORD. ‘Though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they are red as crimson, they shall be like wool.”
The words red, scarlet, and crimson all mean pretty much the same thing – red. And we know that white represents purity, sinlessness. God is saying that He has the power to turn our sins from wicked, evil red to pure, snowy white. And so it crept into the traditions that the red sash turned white when the azazel goat died.
As stated earlier, the Mishnah tells us that 40 years before the destruction of the temple (Beit HaMikdash), the sash stopped turning white. This, of course, was when Yeshua was slain on the tree.
Rather than wearing his usual robe and colorful garments (described in Exodus [Shemot] 28 and Leviticus [Vayikra] 8:1-8), Aaron was commanded to wear special garments of linen (Leviticus [Vayikra] 16:4).
1 The LORD spoke to Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron who died when they approached the LORD.
2 The LORD said to Moses: "Tell your brother Aaron not to come whenever he chooses into the
Most Holy Placebehind the curtain in front of the atonement cover on the ark, or else he will die, because I appear in the cloud over the atonement cover.
3 "This is how Aaron is to enter the sanctuary area: with a young bull for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering.
4 He is to put on the sacred linen tunic, with linen undergarments next to his body; he is to tie the linen sash around him and put on the linen turban. These are sacred garments; so he must bathe himself with water before he puts them on.
This was a special vestment of simple cloth for use on the Day of Atonement.
... Aaron was commanded to wear special garments of linen (Leviticus [Vayikra] 16:4). Yeshua was seen wearing the same thing in Revelation 1:13-15. Daniel also saw this and described it in Daniel 10:5-6.
12 I turned around to see the voice that was speaking to me. And when I turned I saw seven golden lampstands,
13 and among the lampstands was someone "like a son of man," dressed in a robe reaching down to his feet and with a golden sash around his chest.
14 His head and hair were white like wool, as white as snow, and his eyes were like blazing fire.
15 His feet were like bronze glowing in a furnace, and his voice was like the sound of rushing waters.
16 In his right hand he held seven stars, and out of his mouth came a sharp double-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining in all its brilliance.
17 When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. Then he placed his right hand on me and said: "Do not be afraid. I am the First and the Last.
18 I am the Living One; I was dead, and behold I am alive for ever and ever! And I hold the keys of death and Hades.
This is very similar to what Daniel saw in a vision centuries earlier:
1 In the third year of Cyrus king of
, a revelation was given to Daniel (who was called Belteshazzar). Its message was true and it concerned a great war. The understanding of the message came to him in a vision. Persia
2 At that time I, Daniel, mourned for three weeks.
3 I ate no choice food; no meat or wine touched my lips; and I used no lotions at all until the three weeks were over.
4 On the twenty-fourth day of the first month, as I was standing on the bank of the great river, the
5 I looked up and there before me was a man dressed in linen, with a belt of the finest gold around his waist.
6 His body was like chrysolite, his face like lightning, his eyes like flaming torches, his arms and legs like the gleam of burnished bronze, and his voice like the sound of a multitude.
7 I, Daniel, was the only one who saw the vision; the men with me did not see it, but such terror overwhelmed them that they fled and hid themselves.
8 So I was left alone, gazing at this great vision; I had no strength left, my face turned deathly pale and I was helpless.
9 Then I heard him speaking, and as I listened to him, I fell into a deep sleep, my face to the ground.
10 A hand touched me and set me trembling on my hands and knees.
11 He said, "Daniel, you who are highly esteemed, consider carefully the words I am about to speak to you, and stand up, for I have now been sent to you." And when he said this to me, I stood up trembling.
Chumney is trying to make the point that, when Daniel saw the man by the river, and when John saw Yeshua walking among the candlesticks, they were both seeing someone dressed like a high priest on the Day of Atonement. I can’t really say one way or the other. The similarities in the two accounts makes me wonder if Daniel and John were describing the same Being, and when we read Revelation we ought to take note of these similarities – almost like a hyperlink to Daniel’s vision. But I can’t really say if they are describing someone dressed like the high priest on the Day of Atonement. It’s an interesting thought, though.
By slaying the animals at the altar and applying their blood to the altar, the garments of the high priest became very bloody and G-d instructed them to be washed (Leviticus [Vayikra] 6:27). However, on Yom Kippur G-d declared in Isaiah (Yeshayahu) , as it is written, "...though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow...." Spiritually speaking, a white garment represents purity and the absence of sin (Revelation 7:9,13-14; 19:8).
In Numbers (Bamidbar) 15:37-41, fringes (tzi-tzit) were put on the hem of the garments to remind the people of the Torah or G-d's Word. Consider the woman with the issue of blood (she was unclean) coming to Yeshua (the High Priest of G-d) to touch the hem of His garment and be healed (Matthew [Mattityahu] -22). ... When the woman with the issue of blood touched the hem (tzi-tzit) of Yeshua's garment in Matthew 9:20-22, ... she believed Yeshua's word by faith (emunah) and was made well because of her faith.
Face to Face
The high priest (Cohen HaGadol) could only go into the Holy of Holies once a year (Leviticus [Vayikra] 16:2; Hebrews 9:6-7). (G-d issued a warning that no man could see His face and live (Exodus [Shemot] 33:20). But because on the Day of Atonement the priest could be in G-d's presence (Leviticus [Vayikra] 16:2), another term for the Day of Atonement is "face to face."
By the time of the second temple, this ritual [the high priest's (Cohen HaGadol) ceremony] had been somewhat elaborated, and one crucial element had been added to it. That element was that on three separate occasions, in a grand crescendo, the high priest appeared before the people, and three times he recited a formula of confession in their hearing. The first confession was on the account of his own sins and those of his household; the second, on the account of the priestly tribe of Levi; the third, on the account of the whole people.
On this occasion only, in the entire year, the confession included the priest's saying aloud the name of G-d embodied in the Hebrew letters YHVH (called the Tetragrammaton). This was the name that G-d gave and explained to Moses (Moshe) at the burning bush, the name that was a kind of distillation of "I am Becoming Who I am Becoming," the name that was not a name in the sense of a label by which G-d could be called and controlled, and therefore the name that could not be said aloud. It was, therefore, all year long euphemized by saying, whenever YHVH appeared in the text, or invocation, Adonai, The L-rd. Only on Yom Kippur was the name said, aloud, in all its original awesomeness.
(How the name was pronounced on this occasion was so thoroughly protected from record-keeping, that might profane it, that we no longer know how it was done.)
In each confession, when the high priest reached the recitation of the name, the whole people would prostrate themselves and say aloud, "Baruch shem K'vod malchuto l'olam va'ed," [which we sing in the song, “He Is My Defense”] which means, "Blessed be the Name of the radiance of the Kingship, forever and beyond." On the third recitation, the one for their own sins, they knew that the high priest (Cohen HaGadol) had just before – on this one occasion in all the year – entered the Holy of Holies, the inmost room of the temple (Beit HaMikdash) where G-d's Presence was most fully felt. He entered it three times, and only then came out to confess on behalf of all the people and put their sins upon the head of the goat for azazel.
The result of this triple entry into the Holy of Holies, this triple recitation of G-d's most holy name, and this triple prostration by the entire people, was an utterly awesome sense of G-d's Presence making atonement for the people, cleansing them of all their sins, permitting them to begin the year afresh, renewing their lives. So total was this sense of transformation that, after it, the mood of the people shifted from solemn awe to joyful celebration. The young, unmarried men and women went to dance in the fields and to choose spouses for themselves. Yom Kippur and the fifteenth of Av [which is the First Day of Unleavened Bread] were the only days in the year when this kind of mass public espousal would take place.
Therefore, when the high priest stood before G-d on this day, he was said to be "face to face" with G-d. Because of this, Yom Kippur became known by the phrase "face to face." "Face to face" terminology was used in First Corinthians 13:9-12, as it is written:
For we know in part; and we prophesy in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away. When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child: but when I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known (1 Corinthians 13:9-12).
Both verse 11 and the phrase in verse 12, "For now we see through a glass, darkly" come from the Jewish Midrash.
1 Corinthians 13:11-12:
11 When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I put childish ways behind me.
12 Now we see but a poor reflection as in a mirror; then we shall see face to face.
... "Face to face" is an idiom for Yom Kippur. Why? It was on Yom Kippur that the high priest had to go behind the veil of the temple. At that moment, the nation had to hold its breath because the nation's fate depended upon G-d's accepting the sacrifice. At that point, the high priest was "face to face with the mercy seat of G-d."
When the high priest (Cohen HaGadol) entered the Holy of Holies, he saw the L-rd's presence as a brilliant cloud hovering above the mercy seat (Leviticus [Vayikra] 16:2). The word for mercy seat in Hebrew is kapporet. It comes from the root word kaphar, which is the same word used for "atonement." The mercy seat can also be translated as the seat of atonement. The mercy seat is described in detail in Exodus (Shemot) 25:17-22 and 37:6-9. This is the place where Moses (Moshe) met and spoke with G-d face to face (Exodus [Shemot] 25:22; 30:6; Numbers [Bamidbar] 7:89).
Chumney goes into more detail about the spiritual, Messianic significance of the day.
Life for a Life
The biblical name for the day of Atonement is Yom HaKippurim, meaning "the day of covering, canceling, pardon, reconciling." Occasionally, it was called "the Day of the Fast" or "the Great Fast" (Leviticus [Vayikra] -31; -34).
G-d told the Israelites to sacrifice an animal as a substitute for their own sentence to die. This life for a life principle is the foundation of the sacrificial system. The Torah allows a monetary ransom be paid for an individual deserving death (Exodus [Shemot] -32). The guilty person here was the owner of an ox that had killed a person, and the owner of the ox was responsible for the death caused by his ox (Exodus says that money paid in place of the death of the owner was a ransom price).
Messianic Fulfillment. Yeshua died on the tree as a substitute for us, who deserved death because we sinned against G-d. Yeshua paid the ransom price for us to G-d (Mark ; 1 Timothy 2:5-6; 1 Corinthians ; ).
Mark : “For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.”
1 Timothy 2:5-6:
5 For there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus,
6 who gave himself as a ransom for all men – the testimony given in its proper time.
1 Corinthians 6:19-20:
19 Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from God? You are not your own;
20 you were bought at a price. Therefore honor God with your body.
1 Corinthians 7:22-23:
22 For he who was a slave when he was called by the Lord is the Lord's freedman; similarly, he who was a free man when he was called is Christ's slave.
23 You were bought at a price; do not become slaves of men.
Chumney establishes that God bought us, using the currency of Yeshua’s shed blood. Then he goes on to state:
The ransom price was 30 pieces of silver (Exodus [Shemot] ; Matthew [Mattityahu] 26:14-16; 27:3-6).
28 "If a bull gores a man or a woman to death, the bull must be stoned to death, and its meat must not be eaten. But the owner of the bull will not be held responsible.
29 If, however, the bull has had the habit of goring and the owner has been warned but has not kept it penned up and it kills a man or woman, the bull must be stoned and the owner also must be put to death.
30 However, if payment is demanded of him, he may redeem his [own] life by paying whatever is demanded.
31 This law also applies if the bull gores a son or daughter.
32 [However,] If the bull gores a male or female slave, the owner must pay thirty shekels of silver to the master of the slave, and the bull must be stoned.
This idea of 30 shekels of silver plays a role in the Passion story of Yeshua.
14 Then one of the Twelve – the one called Judas Iscariot – went to the chief priests
15 and asked, "What are you willing to give me if I hand him over to you?" So they counted out for him thirty silver coins.
16 From then on Judas watched for an opportunity to hand him over.
Why 30 pieces of silver? There was no ox, Judas was not the master, and Yeshua was not the slave. Let’s pick up the story a few verses later:
3 When Judas, who had betrayed him, saw that Jesus was condemned, he was seized with remorse and returned the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and the elders.
4 "I have sinned," he said, "for I have betrayed innocent blood." "What is that to us?" they replied. "That's your responsibility."
5 So Judas threw the money into the temple and left. Then he went away and hanged himself.
6 The chief priests picked up the coins and said, "It is against the law to put this into the treasury, since it is blood money."
7 So they decided to use the money to buy the potter's field as a burial place for foreigners.
8 That is why it has been called the Field of Blood to this day.
9 Then what was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled: "They took the thirty silver coins, the price set on him by the people of
10 and they used them to buy the potter's field, as the Lord commanded me."
Apparently this was a fulfillment of a prophecy. I wanted to look at that prophecy.
Although the prophecy was apparently spoken originally by the prophet Jeremiah, it is written down in the writings of the prophet Zechariah:
4 This is what the LORD my God says: "Pasture the flock marked for slaughter.
5 Their buyers slaughter them and go unpunished. Those who sell them say, 'Praise the LORD, I am rich!' Their own shepherds do not spare them.
6 For I will no longer have pity on the people of the land," declares the LORD. "I will hand everyone over to his neighbor and his king. They will oppress the land, and I will not rescue them from their hands."
7 So I pastured the flock marked for slaughter, particularly the oppressed of the flock. Then I took two staffs and called one Favor and the other
Union, and I pastured the flock.
8 In one month I got rid of the three shepherds. The flock detested me, and I grew weary of them
9 and said, "I will not be your shepherd. Let the dying die, and the perishing perish. Let those who are left eat one another's flesh."
10 Then I took my staff called Favor and broke it, revoking the covenant I had made with all the nations.
11 It was revoked on that day, and so the afflicted of the flock who were watching me knew it was the word of the LORD.
12 I told them, "If you think it best, give me my pay; but if not, keep it." So they paid me thirty pieces of silver.
13 And the LORD said to me, "Throw it to the potter" – the handsome price at which they priced me! So I took the thirty pieces of silver and threw them into the house of the LORD to the potter.
14 Then I broke my second staff called
Union, breaking the brotherhood between and Judah . Israel
15 Then the LORD said to me, "Take again the equipment of a foolish shepherd.
16 For I am going to raise up a shepherd over the land who will not care for the lost, or seek the young, or heal the injured, or feed the healthy, but will eat the meat of the choice sheep, tearing off their hoofs.
17 "Woe to the worthless shepherd, who deserts the flock! May the sword strike his arm and his right eye! May his arm be completely withered, his right eye totally blinded!"
There are a lot of obscure references in there. The book of Zechariah is probably one of the least understood of all the prophets. I feel as if I see a lot of what’s happening today in this prophecy. But we know that prophecies can have multiple fulfillments,so this could be in the past, the present, and the future.
But we do know one thing: The reference to 30 pieces of silver, throwing them into the Lord’s house, and something about a potter’s field, are fulfilled in the events of Matthew 26 and 27. And the high priests knew it!They knew they were fulfilling the potter’s field prophecy. They knew that Judas throwing the money into the temple meant that they HAD to purchase the potter’s field – which means that they knew, all along,that 30 pieces of silver was the price of a slave, and this was what they gave to Judas as the value of Yeshua’s capture and death. It may have been intended as a slap, as an insult, but in fact, they were right. Yeshua was indeed a slave, a servant.
12 When Peter saw this, he said to them: "Men of Israel, why does this surprise you? Why do you stare at us as if by our own power or godliness we had made this man walk?
13 The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the God of our fathers, has glorified his servant Jesus.
5 Your attitude should be the same as that of Christ Jesus:
6 Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped,
7 but made himself nothing, taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness.
8 And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself
and became obedient to death – even death on a cross!
So the humble servant of God, Yeshua Messiah, was pleased to go through the anguish and defilement of being the Lamb of God, sacrificed on Passover, but whose blood, which forgives our sins, is represented on the Day of Atonement in the sacrifice of two goats. One goat was butchered in a bloody ceremony, while the other goat carried away the sins of the people. Together, the two goats made up one sacrifice, the sacrifice of atonement, to reconcile people to God, symbolizing the sacrifice and eternal high priesthood of Yeshua.
Here is an interesting side note of history: The office of high priest was given to Aaron’s descendants. Only one man could be high priest, otherwise he would not be high – he would only be one of several. But by the time of Christ, with
occupied by armies of the Jerusalem Roman Empire, the office of high priest had changed into more of a political position. There was a group of priests who rotated the office year by year. That’s why Judas could go before the high priests – plural. There were several of them. God originally gave the office as a lifetime appointment for one man. But notice what John records:
47 Then the chief priests and the Pharisees called a meeting of the Sanhedrin. "What are we accomplishing?" they asked. "Here is this man performing many miraculous signs.
48 If we let him go on like this, everyone will believe in him, and then the Romans will come and take away both our place and our nation."
49 Then one of them, named Caiaphas, who was high priest that year, spoke up, "You know nothing at all!
50 You do not realize that it is better for you that one man die for the people than that the whole nation perish."
51 He did not say this on his own, but as high priest that year he prophesied that Jesus would die for the Jewish nation,
52 and not only for that nation but also for the scattered children of God, to bring them together and make them one.
53 So from that day on they plotted to take his life.
12 Then the detachment of soldiers with its commander and the Jewish officials arrested Jesus. They bound him
13 and brought him first to Annas, who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, the high priest that year.
14 Caiaphas was the one who had advised the Jews that it would be good if one man died for the people.
15 Simon Peter and another disciple [presumably John] were following Jesus. Because this disciple was known to the high priest, he went with Jesus into the high priest's courtyard,
16 but Peter had to wait outside at the door. The other disciple, who was known to the high priest, came back, spoke to the girl on duty there and brought Peter in.
17 "You are not one of his disciples, are you?" the girl at the door asked Peter. He replied, "I am not."
18 It was cold, and the servants and officials stood around a fire they had made to keep warm. Peter also was standing with them, warming himself.
19 Meanwhile, the high priest questioned Jesus about his disciples and his teaching.
20 "I have spoken openly to the world," Jesus replied. "I always taught in synagogues or at the temple, where all the Jews come together. I said nothing in secret.
21 Why question me? Ask those who heard me. Surely they know what I said."
22 When Jesus said this, one of the officials nearby struck him in the face. "Is this the way you answer the high priest?" he demanded.
23 "If I said something wrong," Jesus replied, "testify as to what is wrong. But if I spoke the truth, why did you strike me?"
24 Then Annas sent him, still bound, to Caiaphas the high priest.
We’re dealing with two high priests in this account: Annas, the high priest, questioned Jesus, and then sent him to his son-in-law, Caiaphas, the high priest, who was “the high priest that year”!
5 The next day the rulers, elders and teachers of the law met in
6 Annas the high priest was there, and so were Caiaphas, John, Alexander and the other men of the high priest's family.
7 They had Peter and John brought before them and began to question them: "By what power or what name did you do this?"
8 Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, said to them: "Rulers and elders of the people!
9 If we are being called to account today for an act of kindness shown to a cripple and are asked how he was healed,
10 then know this, you and all the people of
: It is by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom you crucified but whom God raised from the dead, that this man stands before you healed. Israel
11 He [Yeshua] is "'the stone you builders rejected, which has become the capstone.'
12 Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given to men by which we must be saved."
1 Paul looked straight at the Sanhedrin and said, "My brothers, I have fulfilled my duty to God in all good conscience to this day."
2 At this the high priest Ananias ordered those standing near Paul to strike him on the mouth.
3 Then Paul said to him, "God will strike you, you whitewashed wall! You sit there to judge me according to the law, yet you yourself violate the law by commanding that I be struck!"
By the way, that’s what was happening with Yeshua years earlier at Annas’s house. But Yeshua didn’t retaliate. Paul did.
4 Those who were standing near Paul said, "You dare to insult God's high priest?"
5 Paul replied, "Brothers, I did not realize that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'"
So we know of at least three people who were the high priest during those years, two of them at the same time! And the concept of “the high priest that year” shows that the office of high priest had changed from the time God gave the rules to Moses.
Coming back from that interesting side trip, let’s read some more of Eddie Chumley’s book:
Significance of [Yeshua’s] Blood in the Bible
It is a token of the New Covenant (Brit Hadashah)
(Matthew [Mattityahu] 26:27-28; 1 Corinthians ).
It gives eternal life (John [Yochanan] -54).
It brings redemption (Ephesians 1:7).
It makes atonement (Romans ; 1 John 2:2; 4:9-10).
It justifies before G-d (Romans 5:9).
It gives us forgiveness (Ephesians 1:7; ; Colossians ; 1 John 1:9).
It provides reconciliation (Colossians -20).
It provides cleansing (1 John 1:7).
It makes us overcomers (Revelation ).
G-d divinely placed Yom Kippur before the Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot), which is called "The Season of Our Joy." The children of
(and all believers in the Messiah Yeshua) could only rejoice once they were redeemed and their sins forgiven. Israel
Yeshua’s Second Coming and Yom Kippur
If you examine the Scriptures concerning the second coming of Yeshua back to earth, when He will set His foot upon the Mount of Olives (Zechariah 14:4), you will find that it uses Yom Kippur terminology. Here are a few examples.
The first example is in Isaiah (Yeshayahu) 52:13-15. First, let us examine Isaiah 52:13-14 so we can identify that this is referring to Yeshua the Messiah. Then, we will look at Isaiah 52:15.
In Isaiah (Yeshayahu) 52:13-14 it is written:
Behold, My servant shall deal prudently [the servant refers to the Messiah], He shall be exalted and extolled, and be very high. [The New Covenant (Brit Hadashah) references to this include Acts -35; -31; and Philippians 2:9-11.] As many were astonied at thee; His visage was so marred more than any man, and His form more than the sons of men (Isaiah [Yeshayahu] 52:13-14).
This description of Yeshua, the suffering Messiah, is drastically different than how Yeshua is portrayed in
This description depicts a lamb going to the slaughter (Isaiah 53:7). Isaiah (Yeshayahu) 52:14 depicts a man so marred that He did not resemble a man. Furthermore, Isaiah (Yeshayahu) 50:6 says that His beard was ripped out. Psalm (Tehillim) 22:14,17 says His bones were out of joint and that He was naked before the peering eyes of men. They even bit him (Psalm ).
The Romans used a whip with nine strands, and each strand had bone, glass, and sharp metal in it. The purpose of the whip was to strip away the flesh so the organs would hang out of the body. Psalm says they also pierced His hands and feet. Psalm says they gambled for His garments. Recognizing that Isaiah 52:13-14 is speaking about Yeshua during His first coming to earth, Isaiah 52:15 will speak about His second coming.
In Isaiah (Yeshayahu) 52:15 it is written:
"So shall He sprinkle many nations; the kings shall shut their mouths at Him: for that which had not been told them shall they see; and that which they had not heard shall they consider."
The phrase, "So shall He sprinkle many nations" is a reference to the sprinkling of the blood on the mercy seat of G-d by the high priest during Yom Kippur (Leviticus ). This is also referred to in Leviticus 1:5,11; 3:2,8,13; 4:6,17; 7:2.
When I first read this, I disagreed. When Christ comes, the world will be at war, Christ and the resurrected saints will have to intervene to stop the war and gather fractured humanity back together. How does the high priest sprinkling blood fit into this picture? The priest sprinkles blood on the lid of the ark of the covenant to represent the forgiveness of sin.
Then I thought, well, if Isaiah is referring to Christ’s second coming in power in the clouds, I guess, poetically, figuratively, He will be sprinkling the nations with His blood to picture His forgiveness. After all, God’s anger lasts only a moment.
4 Sing to the LORD, you saints of his; praise his holy name.
5 For his anger lasts only a moment, but his favor lasts a lifetime; weeping may remain for a night, but rejoicing comes in the morning.
So once the enemies are put down, war comes to a halt, the bad guys are dispatched, and the wonderful, peaceful World Tomorrow gets under way. So, yes, I can see how Christ’s second coming is to sprinkle His blood, figuratively speaking, on the nations.
Source for Chumney: http://www.hebroots.com/chap8.html
That’s all I wanted to quote out of Chumley’s book.
We talk about the duality of scripture. There are all sorts of things we could point to where there is a duality, or a type/antetype, or a new/old, or a first/second. These are aspects of the duality of scripture. The holy days also show a duality. I’ve mentioned before that there is a relationship between the week of Unleavened Bread and the week of the Feast of Tabernacles. There is a symmetry, a mirror image, with Passover leading into the Days of Unleavened Bread, then there is the week of the Feast followed immediately by the 8th day convocation.
There is also symmetry in Pentecost, shortly after UB, and Trumpets, shortly before the Feast. It’s almost as if you can fold the year in half and match up the days.
But in addition to that, there is also a strong relationship between Passover and the Day of Atonement. We’ve already seen a number of them. Christ died on Passover, as the Lamb of God. But His blood is taken into the Holy of Holies (in the symbolism of the holy days) on Atonement. The first month, leading up to Passover, is a time of repentance and reflection. So is the seventh month, leading up to Atonement. The ten “days of awe” lead from Trumpets to Atonement, and have great significance to the Jews. Christ’s blood is shed on Passover, then the Days of Unleavened Bread picture coming out of slavery in both physical and spiritual
. Christ’s blood is spread on Atonement, then the Feast pictures coming out of slavery to sin and the end of Satan’s era of ruling the earth. Egypt
There are a number of relationships between the holy days. The spring holy days are often thought to be showing the early flock, the little group called out ahead of the rest of the world. The spring holy days are thought to represent Christ’s work during his first coming. Then the fall holy days seem to picture somewhat the same thing, but on a grander scale, picturing Christ’s second coming and the redemption of the world. As we saw earlier, Christ’s sacrifice was not just for the Jewish nation, but for all God’s children around the world, in all ages.
We haven’t even touched on the important subject of the Jubilee. The Jubilee year is declared, not on the first day of the first month, not on the first day of the seventh month, but on the Day of Atonement. The Jubilee is when slaves are freed, property is returned to its rightful owners, and the land gets an extra Sabbath year of rest. It’s a joyful time of reconciliation, starting over, renewing old relationships, and beginning fresh. And it begins on Atonement. I won’t take any more time to go into that today. Maybe another time.
Part 2. The Saving Work of the Savior
For the rest of this message, I’d like to bring the Day of Atonement into a New Testament, New Covenant focus. We have spent many a Day of Atonement looking at the two goats, and fasting, and the other aspects of what ancient
looked at. But we must not forget that, because of the Day of Atonement, we have a High Priest in heaven who goes before the REAL mercy seat daily. So I wanted to spend the rest of the time today pointing us all toward the Savior. The Day of Atonement is all about the Savior and His saving work. We must not overlook that. Israel
Paul wrote, in Romans 10:10-13:
10 For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you confess and are saved.
11 As the Scripture says, "Anyone who trusts in him will never be put to shame."
12 For there is no difference between Jew and Gentile – the same Lord is Lord of all and richly blesses all who call on him,
13 for, "Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved."
We believe with our hearts, and we confess, or make our confession, that Yeshua is Lord and Savior, and is currently our High Priest in heaven.
In 1 Corinthians 6:9-11, Paul said:
9 Do you not know that the wicked will not inherit the
? Do not be deceived: Neither the sexually immoral nor idolaters nor adulterers nor male prostitutes nor homosexual offenders kingdomof God
10 nor thieves nor the greedy nor drunkards nor slanderers nor swindlers
[nor used car salesmen, nor politicians, nor porn stars, nor
Hollywoodcelebrities, nor phony television evangelists]
will inherit the
. kingdomof God
11 And that is what some of you were. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God.
We read earlier from Philippians chapter 2, but let’s get the complete thought now.
5 Your attitude should be the same as that of Christ Jesus:
6 Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped,
7 but made himself nothing, taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness.
8 And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself
and became obedient to death – even death on a cross!
Death on a cross, or a Roman torture stake, meant you were really the lowest of the low, the worst kind of criminal. Death by crucifixion meant you were really a special case, and the Romans were making an example out of you to tell everyone, “You don’t want to do what this guy did,or you’ll end up here, too!” Yeshua humbled Himself and become obedient, even to a humiliating and tortured death by crucifixion.
9 Therefore [because of this, as a result of this] God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name that is above every name,
10 that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth,
11 and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
As much as we honor and revere the Father, we must not overlook the work that Yeshua did, as God’s Son, as the prophet like Moses who was to come, as our High Priest in heaven. Verse 11 tells us: If we want to give glory to the Father, we need to confess with our tongues that Yeshua is Lord.
I’d like to quote some material written by David Linden, of Action International Ministries in
. This man is in a Protestant missionary organization, one of many. Like many other Protestant groups today, these people have been looking into the holy days of God and finding spiritual significance in them. And when they write about the holy days and what those days mean, they write from the Protestant perspective, which in many ways is different from the perspective of the church we came out of. When I read these statements about the holy days from people who have recently discovered them, I am often amazed at the insight they have into the holy days, and I come away feeling as if I have been instructed in the holy days all over again. Canada
This is what this man says about the atonement. I hope you can overlook some of the Protestant phrases and concentrate on the meaning of Atonement as this man found it.
A Brief Statement on the Atonement
The atonement is the sacrificial offering the Lord Jesus Christ made on the cross of
Calvary. The only Mediator between God and man offered Himself to His Father, Who had sent Him to stand in for His people. The only way of salvation for sinful man is this provision God has made. Only Christ by His atoning work brings reconciliation between God and man. In that sacrifice Christ took our guilt on Himself, without committing sin, and underwent the wrath of God due us, when He made full payment for our sin in human flesh. By laying down His life, He bore for us the penalty our sin deserved, a penalty we would endure by ourselves were it not for Christ’s mediation.
[Mediation = intervention]
His death was substitutionary and vicarious. [It was substitutionary in that God substituted Christ’s death for ours, and it was vicarious in the sense that He died in our place.]
In no other way than in human death could the justice of God be exercised against human sin. In no other object could it be endured than by a human representative. No other Person could bear such a load than God[‘s] Son.
Christ’s redeeming ransom secures for us remission of sins [forgiveness of sins] and all the blessing of God. God was reconciled by Christ’s perfect sacrifice, a propitiation that fully satisfied divine justice. [Propitiation = to appease, to win over, to get on God’s good side]Thus sin is removed from the believing sinner’s record; sin no longer has mastery over us; and at His appearing, sin will be removed from our experience entirely. His blood is effective to secure the salvation of all God sent Him to save. His sacrifice is over, finished, unrepeatable and successful, having accomplished His mission without human assistance. No one else can or needs to atone for sin; all attempts to do so are a rejection of Christ and His sacrifice.
The atonement is central to worship and song; to preaching, baptism and the Lord’s Supper; to mission, ministry and ethics. It is fatal to reject it and a great sin to neglect what is supreme to God and the only basis of our approach to Him. In the cross, the Father and Son glorified each other, and in it we glorify both.
This saving mercy God owes to no man, yet offers to all in the gospel. He freely forgives all who will believe in His promise of salvation and trust in the Savior sent to secure it for them, Jesus Christ our Lord.
continues his teaching on the atonement: Linden
The Day of Atonement in the Book of Hebrews
The Psalms say that the Messiah is the Son and that He will be a Priest, (Psalm 2 and 110). Hebrews takes those two truths and builds the structure of salvation on these roles of Christ, (Heb. 5:5,6). It is His priestly office that connects with Leviticus 16. The temporary priest, a man with sins, a man who lost his role in death, was a priest who offered inferior blood that could not really remove sin – such a priest was no more than a shadow of the ultimate Priest to come! Heb. 5:3; ; 10:4.
A major theme in Hebrews is that Christ entered the real sanctuary in heaven. There He sat down, after His offering had been made and His blood presented. He had accomplished purification for our sins, all by Himself, (Heb. 1:4). He shared our humanity and became like us in every way but sin, that He might make atonement for the sins of the people, (Heb. ). Our great high priest did not go through the curtain in the
. Instead, He went through the heavens, (Heb. ,15). Our hope is in our priest, anchored in the place where He has gone – the inner sanctuary, (Heb.6: 19). Clearly, Hebrews has the Day of Atonement in mind. Temple
We do have such a high priest who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, and who serves in the sanctuary, the true tabernacle set up by the Lord, not man. (Hebrews 8:1,2)
The physical structure in the wilderness depicted a higher sanctuary, the very presence of God Himself. The earthly sanctuary was made according to pattern, i.e., according to the reality of the real sanctuary. On earth was a replica, a little model of the real thing if you will, "a copy and shadow of what is in heaven," according to Heb. 8:5. Of this earthly structure and ministry, we read in Hebrews 9:7:
Only the high priest entered the inner room, only once a year, never without blood, the priest offered for himself and the sins of the people
Then Hebrews speaks of Christ. Note how the earlier pattern approximates the real. "He went through" is curtain language in Heb 9:11. "He did not enter by means of the blood of goats and calves, but He entered the Most Holy Place once for all by His own blood, having obtained eternal redemption," Heb. 9:12. Jesus Christ was not in the line of Aaron, so He never entered the Holy of Holies on earth. The only sanctuary He entered was the real one, heaven. Christ did not enter a man-made sanctuary that was only a copy of the true one; he entered heaven itself, now to appear for us in God's presence. (Hebrews 9:24)
On the Day of Atonement, the high priest slaughtered the animal outside and took in its blood. The Lord Jesus offered Himself on earth and took His blood (meaning the reality and merits of His sacrifice) and, in a non-literal sense, brought that blood and placed it in the Presence of God. His entry into the heavenly sanctuary is literal. The blood had been shed on earth literally. He then could appeal for our forgiveness, because in His death, He bore the penalty of our sin.
Christ did not literally carry blood to heaven. But by going there after His sacrifice He was our priest; He represented us and sat down and stayed. The Father's words telling Him to sit (Heb. ; ,12) show the sacrifice was accepted on behalf of all for whom it was shed. Since His sacrifice was accepted, so too are all who trust in it. (I make no other claim for acceptance by God.)
Christ is the reality, while the succession of previous priests were a massive display of model priests (like "model" airplanes that cannot fly) to prepare
for the ministry of the Savior. He offered His own blood once for all and achieved genuine cleansing, not merely ceremonial. He purchased an eternal inheritance for us, plus the right of entry for all His people into the presence of God. God, by means of Christ His Servant, had met His own requirements. Israel
The Day of Atonement showed a need for reconciliation and indicated the way it would be achieved – by a priest who would take blood and go before God for us. In the fullness of time, God sent a priest "in service to God" to become one of us, so He could make atonement for the sins of the people. That priest is His Son.
In short, God would never let up on His demands for righteousness and for satisfaction for sin. We could not meet either demand. God has supplied the ground for accepting sinners in two ways:
He sent His Son to come here and meet our covenant obligations by obeying for us. His righteousness is credited to the believer. Obedience is the requirement of the law.
With His blood, He satisfied the demands of justice. Death is the sanction of the law.
Christ having finished His work of obedience and sacrifice as a man, ... sat down [in heaven]. From heaven He [God] poured out His Spirit, sent to produce new covenant faithfulness in us, Heb. 10:16. With our status settled, the process of living in the new relationship is addressed. But we need to remember that all consequent blessings for His believing people are already secured, and we have only begun to enjoy them. The Spirit has us fix our thoughts on Jesus, the "Sent One" and high priest we confess, (Heb. 3:1). He writes the holy law, found under the atonement cover, on our hearts and makes us walk obediently in it, (Ezekiel 36:24-32; Jeremiah 31:31-34). In short, Jesus Christ our Great High Priest fulfilled the demands of the old covenant for us and God's Spirit makes His people alive in the new [covenant].
And What Did the People Do?
While the high priest was working hard, the people were explicitly ordered not to "do any work", [Leviticus -30] vs. 29. Atonement was being made "for them", [Leviticus ] vs. 30. We too are commanded not to offer other sacrifices or seek other approaches to God. They did not offer for themselves; their priest did. Atonement was not based on their participation, but on their representation by someone else, appointed by God to be high priest. They were out of the atoning activity. God's anointed priest would have to do that for them.
Much has changed; the Real Sacrifice has replaced the object lessons of a million animals. Christ has replaced all the forerunners; the curtain that blocked the presence of God has been torn open by God Himself (Matthew 27:51). This gospel has already gone through much of the earth. But the principles have not changed: there is a priest who went before God for us, and our reconciliation does not rest on our contribution to it whatsoever. Someone else, our Lord Jesus Christ, paid for sin with his blood. To receive Him is to have Him as our priest and [it is also our] reconciliation with God. God in His holiness is a danger to sinners, but, in Christ our priest, God Himself has become our safety.
In 1999, a new careful statement on the gospel has emerged that is drawing well-deserved attention. Here are two quotations on the atonement from The Gospel of Jesus Christ: An Evangelical Celebration (© 1999 The Committee on Evangelical Unity in the Gospel).
The Father sent [His] Son to free us from the dominion of sin and Satan, and to make us God's children and friends. Jesus paid our penalty in our place on his cross, satisfying the retributive demands of divine justice by shedding his blood in sacrifice and so making possible justification for all who trust in him (Rom. 3:25-26). The Bible describes this mighty substitutionary transaction as the achieving of ransom, reconciliation, redemption, propitiation, and conquest of evil powers (Matt. 20:28; 2 Cor. -21; Rom. -25; John 12:31; Col. 2:15). It secures for us a restored relationship with God that brings pardon and peace, acceptance and access, and adoption into God's family (Col. 1:20, 2:13-14; Rom. 5:1-2; Gal. 4:4-7; 1 Pet. 3:18). The faith in God and in Christ to which the Gospel calls us is a trustful outgoing of our hearts to lay hold of these promised and proffered benefits.
This Gospel further proclaims the bodily resurrection, ascension, and enthronement of Jesus as evidence of the efficacy of his once-for-all sacrifice for us, of the reality of his present personal ministry to us [as our High Priest], and of the certainty of his future return to glorify us (1 Cor. 15; Heb. 1:1-4, 2:1-18, 4:14-16, 7:1-10:25). In the life of faith as the Gospel presents it, believers are united with their risen Lord, communing with him, and looking to him in repentance and hope for empowering through the Holy Spirit, so that henceforth they may not sin but serve him truly.
We affirm that the atonement of Christ by which, in his obedience, he offered a perfect sacrifice, propitiating the Father [propitiate = to appease, to win over, to get on God’s good side] by paying for our sins and satisfying divine justice on our behalf according to God's eternal plan, is an essential element of the Gospel.
We deny that any view of the Atonement that rejects the substitutionary satisfaction of divine justice, accomplished vicariously for believers, is compatible with the teaching of the Gospel.